The tiny world on a motherboard!

I remember when I was young when I saw an electric board, I thought it was like a simulation of a town. After a course of physics, I realized that a combination of these components manages our modern life. From a remote to a supercomputer, it all depends on the way you connect these components together. Here are the most important components you may find in an electric circuit at theĀ store.


A resistor is a component used to control voltages in the electric circuit. The phenomena of resistance are like the permeability of materials. A current of water will move through gravels faster than it does in the sand. The sand here is like a resistor. Resistors are also used to reduce the current flow in a circuit. They can be used in circuits combined with other components. The phenomena of resistance do not exist only in resistors, actually, all components that produce heat while connecting to an electric current have resistance. The unit of the resistance is the Ohm (named after the German scientist Georg Ohm). An electric bulb can have 6000 ohms of resistance.


A capacitor is an electric tank. It simply consists of 2 parallel plates of metal separated by a little distance. When the current move through the capacitor, it save the charge on the two plates making a positive and a negative charge, and after a while it releases the current with a higher rate. The phenomenon is that the capacitor stores the electric energy and release the same amount of energy at a higher rate (voltage). to charge or discharge a capacitor you have to connect it in a circuit with a resistor. The combined circuit called RC circuit. The unit of the capacitance is the farad (Named after the English scientist Michael Faraday).


These devices are used to separate signals of different frequencies. An inductor simply consists of a coil. It also stores energy but in this case, it stores the energy in a magnetic field. You may wonder how can an electric current produce a magnetic field. That is possible according to Faraday’s Law of induction the changing magnetic field produces an electric field and vise versal. The inductors can combine in a circuit with a resistor to form RL circuit. In this circuit, the inductor acts as a tank and the circuit produce resonant frequencies. The unit of the inductance is the Henery.


The diode is a cylindrical component that used to convert the Ac current to DC. It allows the current to flow only in one direction and block it in the reverse or back direction (not like resistors). It consists of silicon injected by tiny amounts of materials like Aluminum and phosphorus. There are many types of diodes like the LED and zener diode.


A transistor is a semiconductor component that used to switch or amplify the current in a circuit. It consists of three semiconductor materials injected also by materials like Aluminum and phosphorus. It can be used to form logic gates like to give the output positive if one of the inputs is positive (this called or gate). It is also used in microphones as an amplifier of the electric signal. A huge combination of transistors in the computer give it the huge abilities it has.

It is so obvious that it was not a simulation of a green town on the motherboard. It may seem complicated at the first glance, but it is all about a current of electrons moving and facing different conditions.

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